By the sewing stitch begins the sewing
The sewing stitch is the basic element of the sewing. It performing can be done by hand or using the sewing machine.
But first let’s see what is called stitch. The stitch consists in the interlacing of one or several sewing threads in a specific repetition unit. The sewing will be the action of joining one or more fabrics through a sequence of stitches.
For its formation a needle is used by which a thread is passed through the tissue
On the other hand, in the sewing machine, the needle penetrates the tissue and descends to its lowest position. At that moment the hook or looper slides through the loop formed by the upper thread making a knot with the lower contained in it. The upper thread is dragged up through the fabric completing the stitch.
Each type of sewing machine performs a specific type of stitch based on the number of needles, hook or looper and threads that combine to form the stitch. Each of these configurations is known as a type of stitch.
Sewing stitch formation with a hook supply
With a loop supply with a movement parallel to the needle
With an loop supply with a movement perpendicular to the needle
Another way to consider the different types of stitches is by the classification made by the ASTM. This entity groups different stitch types doing in six classes. Each class is identified by three numeric digits. The first digit identifies a type of stitch and the next two the different combinations of that stitch according to the number of needles and threads used in its formation.
These six classes are:
Named chain stitch simple. It is formed by one or several needles by which the thread is interlaced with itself. This stitch is formed by using only the needle, without bobbin.
Is characterized by having a certain elasticity, it is easily unstitch and its appearance is different by the right than the reverse.
The ones in this class are handmade stitches. This is formed with a single needle and a single thread made by hand or with a sewing machine that imitates the stitch by hand. This type of stitch can have many different shapes and uses. When being made by hand the stitches of class 200 are characterized by having a high cost and low productivity.
The stitches of this are lock stitch group. This is formed by two series of threads that intertwine with each other. So for your training a needle and a tap are required. The double stitching stitch is the most used in all types of clothing.
The lock stitch is characterized by being a stitch of low volume, resistant, with little elasticity and does not unstitch easily. It has the same appearance for the right as for the reverse side. This is the stitch type most used in clothing.
Known as chain stitch. It is formed by one or more needles and two or more series of threads interlacing with each other. The threads of the second series intertwine, dragging the threads of the first series towards the reverse of the seam. For stitch 400 formation, at least one needle and one anchor are required. This is the most used stitch after the class 300 stitch.
This group is characterized by having a better elasticity and greater volume than those of class 300. Its appearance is different by the right than the reverse. It is more easily unstitch than stitch 301 but less than stitch 101. Due not requiring a change of bobbin it is more cost effective than that of class 300.
Overlock stitch or overedge stitch. It is formed by one or more needles and two or more series of threads interlacing at the edge of the fabric with which the overcasting thereof is produced. When stitching, the edge of the fabric is cut by a knife. For its formation a needle and two loops are required.
The characteristics of this stitch type are its low volume. His appearance is different by the right and the reverse. A good coverage of the edge seam that provides an overcasting of the fabric. Good level of elasticity. This stitch does not unstitch easily. The resistance of the stitch that is determined by the resistance of the needle thread. While the threads of the anchors bring appearance and softness to the seam. Its use is applicable to a large type of tissues.
Flatlock stitch. It is formed by three groups of interlacing threads that intertwine covering both sides of the fabric.
The characteristics of this type of sewing stitch is the high level of elasticity and resistance it has. Provides a flat seam and allows to join two layers of fabric without overlapping. His appearance is different by the right and the reverse. This kind of stitch has a high production efficiency but nevertheless consumes a lot of thread.
After this classification, two more groups have been added.
Single thread stitch. This group contains a single stitch class, 701. It is formed by a continuous thread. The thread bobbin is automatically filled with the thread supplied automatically with the thread supplied by the needle bobbin before starting the stitch cycle. This type of stitch is used only in seams of short sections. This feature allows the first stitch not to have loose ends as it is formed by the loop formed by a single thread.
The sewing stitch of this group is made by machines that can make two or more rows of stitches of different kinds. The most frequent ones can combine stitches of class 503, 504 or 602 with stitches of 301 or 401.